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»start« 

Each program starts with the red »start« block.

This block is always available in the Open Roberta Lab and cannot be deleted. The little triangle below the start block is called  »sequence connector«. The first block you want to use will be connected by using the »sequence connector« at the start block.  The sequence connector color changes to yellow when a suitable block comes into its range.

Settings:

  • create a new global variable
  • delete the global variable
 

If global variables have been created:

  • Text, name of the variable
  • Type of the variable, »Number«, »Boolean«, »String«, »Colour«, »Image«, »List Number«, »List Boolean«, »List String«, »List Image«
  • Value, that corresponds to the variable type. This is the initial value of the variable.


 

After creating a global variable:



 

Action

The »Action« category contains the blocks where an action is performed on the robot. For example, joints or speakers of NAO can be programmed.

The »Action« Category includes the following program blocks:

  • Blocks to control the joints
  • Blocks to control the LEDs
  • Blocks to control the speakers
  • Blocks to control the cameras

In expert mode, the category »Action« is subdivided into the following subcategories:

  • Move
  • Walk
  • Animation
  • Sounds
  • Vision
  • Lights

The expert category contains all blocks of the beginner category.

 

 


 

»set mode«

With the »set mode« block you can move your NAO to a specific mode. 

Settings and input values:

  • Active (standing), Rest or Sit.



 

»apply posture« [Expert-Block

With the »apply posture« block you can move your NAO to a specific predefined posture. Please note that NAO will calculate the way from its current posture to the given one and try to reach it.

Settings and input values:

  • Stand, StandInit, StandZero, Sit, SitRelax, LyingBelly, LyingBack, Crouch



 

»stiffness of« 

With the »stiffness« block you can enslave the joints of NAO. Be aware that NAO can fall when he is standing and you remove the stiffness from the legs.

Settings and input values:

  • Body (all joints), Head, Arms, left Arm, right Arm, Legs, left Leg, right Leg
  • on, off



 

»hand« [Expert-Block]

With the »hand« block you can open and close NAOs hands.

Settings and input values:

  • right, left
  • open, close



 

»move joint« [Expert-Block]

With the »move joint« block you can move every joint of NAO for a number of degrees. You can select if you want the joint to move relative or absolute to its current position.

Settings and input values:

  • joints - head yaw, head pitch, left shoulder pitch, left shoulder roll, left elbow yaw, left elbow roll, left wrist yaw, left hand, left hip yaw pitch, left hip roll, left hip pitch, left knee pitch, left ankle pitch, left ankle roll, right hip yaw pitch, right hip roll, right hip pitch, right knee pitch, right ankle pitch, left ankle roll, right shoulder pitch, right shoulder roll, right elbow yaw, right elbow roll, right wrist yaw, right hand
  • absolute, relative
  • Number of degrees you want to turn the joint.



 

»walk« 

With the »walk« block you can make NAO walk for a distance.

Settings and input values:

  • direction - forwards, backwards
  • The distance in centimeter you want NAO to walk.



 

»turn« 

With the »turn« block you can make NAO turn for a number of degrees.

Settings and input values:

  • direction - left, right
  • The angle in degrees you want NAO to turn.



 

»walk to« [Expert-Block]

With the »walk to« block you can make NAO move to a position described by coordinates.

Settings and input values:

  • x - coordinate
  • y - coordinate
  • theta - coordinate



 

»stop movement«

With the »stop movement« block you can make NAO stop every movement.

 



 

»perform« 

With the »perform« block you can make NAO perform an animation.

Settings and input values:

  • tai chi, wave, blink, wipe forehead



 


 

»point/look at« [Expert-Block]

With the »point/look at« block you can make NAO point with one hand or look to a position specified with coordinates

Settings and input values:

  • point, look
  • frame the coordinates relate to - torso, world, robot
  • x-coordinate
  • y-coordinate
  • z-coordinate
  • speed of the movement in percent



 

»set volume«

With the »set volume« block you can set the volume of NAOs loudspeakers in percent

Settings and input values:

  • volume in percent



 

»get volume«

With the »get volume« block you can get the volume of NAOs loudspeakers in percent



 

»set Language« 

With the »set language« block you can set the language of your NAO. The language has to be installed.

Settings and input values:

  • Language - German, English, French, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, Korean, Italian, Dutch, Finnish, Polnish, Russian, Turkish, Arabic, Czech, Portuguese, Brazilian, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Greek



 

»get language« [Expert-Block]

With the »get language« block you can get the language of your NAO.

 



 

»say«

With the »say« block you can make NAO say a text or a character.

Settings and input values:

  • text or character



 

»play file« [Expert-Block]

With the »play file« block you can make NAO play a sound file from NAOs file system.  

The file has to be placed in the »/usr/share/naoqi/wav/« folder on your NAO and it has to be a .wav file. You can find more information about accessing the file system here: NAO Documentation.

Settings and input values:

  • filename



 

»take picture«

With the »take picture« block you can make NAO take a picture with one of its cameras and save it on the robot..  

The picture is saved in the »/home/nao/recordings/cameras/« folder on your NAO as a JPG. You can find more information about accessing the file system here: NAO Documentation.

Settings and input values:

  • top, bottom
  • filename



 

»record video« [Expert-Block]

 

 

With the »record video« block you can make NAO record a video with one of its cameras and save it on the robot.

The picture is saved in the »/home/nao/recordings/cameras/« folder on your NAO. You can find more information about accessing the file system here: NAO Documentation.

Settings and input values:

  • resolution - 160*120, 320*240, 640*480
  • camera - top, bottom
  • duration of recording in milliseconds
  • filename



 

»RGB Led«

With the »RGB Led« block you can color NAOs RGB leds.

Settings and input values:

  • led name - eyes, left eye, right eye, left foot, right foot, all
  • colour



 

»Led intensity«

With the »Led intensity« block you can set the intensity of NAOs single color LEDs.

Settings and input values:

  • led name - ears, left ear, right ear, chest, head
  • intensity in percent



 

»Led off«

With the »Led off« block you can turn NAOs LEDs off.

Settings and input values:

  • led name - eyes, left eye, right eye, left foot, right foot, ears, left ear, right ear, chest, head, all



 

»Led reset« [Expert-Block]

 

With the »Led reset« block you can reset NAOs LEDs to their initial state after boot up.

Settings and input values:

  • led name - eyes, left eye, right eye, left foot, right foot, ears, left ear, right ear, chest, head, all



 

»Random eyes«

With the »random eyes« block you can make NAO change the colour of its eyes randomly.

Settings and input values:

    duration



 

»Random eyes«

With the »rasta« block you can make NAO change the colour of its eyes between red, green and blue.

Settings and input values:

    duration




 

Sensors

The category »Sensors« contains blocks for all sensors of the NAO:

  • tactile sensors
  • sonar
  • gyrometer
  • accelerometer
  • force sensitive resistors
  • cameras
  • speech recognition

A special feature of the sensor blocks compared to the action blocks is that many sensor-blocks return a »value«. The value type returned by a sensor block corresponds to the color of the connector. The connector is the "nose" which enables NEPO blocks to be inserted into other blocks. An exact description can found in section NEPO.



 

»Touchsensor«

With the »touchsensor« block you can check if a touchsensor on NAOs body is touched. If the selected sensor is touched the block returns true.

Settings:

    touchsensor (hand, bumper, head), side (left, right, front, middle, rear)
Return value:
    true when sensor is touched



 

»Sonar«

With the »sonar« block you can get a measure fron the ultasonic sensors in NAOs chest. The block returns the measured distance.

Return value:

    distance in cm



 

»Gyrometer«

With the »gyrometer« block you can get the raw data of the gyrometer(gyroscope) located in NAOs torso. 

More information: NAO Documentation

Settings:

    direction - X, Y, Z
Return value:
    number - raw value



 

»Accelerometer«

With the »accelerometer« block you can get the raw data of the accelerometer located in NAOs torso. 

More information: NAO Documentation

Settings:

    direction - X, Y, Z
Return value:
    number - raw value



 

»Force sensitive resistor«

With the »force sensitive resistor« block you can get data from the FSRs under NAOs feet. The calculated sum of the FSRs values is returned.

Settings:

    side - left, right
Return value:
    number - calculated value



 

»Electric current« [Expert-Block]

 

With the »electric current« block you can get data from the motor shunts. The electric current of the selected motor/joint is returned.

Settings:

    motor/joint
Return value:
    number - electric current in mA



 

»NAO mark«

With the »NAO mark« block you can detect a NAO mark. The id of the NAO mark is returned.

You can find the NAO marks here. Print them out. You can find the id in the top left corner.


Return value:

    number - id of the mark



 

»Recognized word« [Expert-Block]

 

With the »recognized word« block you can use NAOs speech recognition engine. The last word NAO understood is returned. If NAO hasn`t recognized any word it will return an empty string.


Return value:

    string - last recognized word



 

»Learn face« [Expert-Block]

 

With the »learn face« block you can use NAOs face recognition algorithm. NAO will make a picture and save it in its vision database. The picture will be saved under the name you enter.


Input value:

    string - name



 

»Forget face« [Expert-Block]

 

With the »forget face« block you can use NAOs face recognition algorithm. The database entry marked with the name you use as input for this block will be deleted from the database. Please be aware that this is permanent.


Input value:

    string - name


 

»Detect face« [Expert-Block]

 

With the »detect face« block you can use NAOs face recognition algorithm. NAO uses its camera to detect a face. The entries in the vision database on the robot will be used for recognition. If a known person is detected the block returns true.


Return value:

    boolean - true, if face detected




 

Control

The category "control" includes blocks with which the program sequence can be controlled. The category includes the following blocks:

  • if do
  • if do else
  • repeat indefinitely
  • repeat n times
  • repeat while/until (Expert block)
  • for each item in list (Expert block)
  • count with from to (Expert block)
  • break out/continue with next iteration of loop (Expert block)
  • wait
  • wait until


 

 

»if do«

With the block »if do« you can selectively trigger actions to be executed by your robot. The »if do« block therefore requires a logical value as an input parameter, the condition. Only if the condition of the »if« statement is true, the inserted block will be executed. In a nested »if do« block, if a further distinction was added, the first »if« condition is queried. If it is not fulfilled (condition = false), the second »else if« condition will be checked. Also this second condition requires a logical value as an input parameter.

The conditions may arbitrarily be expanded by clicking the "+" plus symbol. The "-" minus symbol reduces the block.

Settings and input values:

  • Insert an additional condition.
  • Delete the last condition.
  • Boolean value, »true« or »false«.
  • Blocks that will be executed.
  


 


 

 

»if do else«

With the block »if do else« you can selectively trigger actions which are executed by your robot. The »if do then« block therefore requires a logical value as an input parameter. If the condition in »if« is true the  inserted block will be executed, otherwise (condition is not fulfilled = false) the block connected to the »else« statement will be executed. In a nested »if do else« block with further distinctions added, the first  »if« condition is queried. If it is not true, the second condition »else if«  is checked. Also the second condition requires a logical value as an input parameter. Only when both conditions are not true, the block which is inserted at the »else« statement will be executed.

The conditions may arbitrarily be expanded by clicking the "+" plus symbol. The "-" minus symbol reduces the block.

Settings:

  • Insert an additional if-do-else condition.
  • Delete the last if-do-else condition.
  • Boolean value, »true« or »false«.
  • Do blocks that will be executed if the according condition evaluates to »true«.
  • Else blocks that will be executed if the according condition evaluates to »false«.



 

 

»repeat indefinitely«

With the block »repeat indefinitely« you can endlessly run the blocks on your robot. All blocks which are within the »repeat indefinitely« block will be executed endlessly. The blocks are applied sequentially from top to bottom. Once the last block has been executed, the program repeats with the first block again. Therefore, this block is also called »loop«.

Input:

  • Blocks to be repeated indefinitely.



 

 

»repeat n times«

With the block »repeat« you can run other block as many times as you like. All blocks in the »repeat« block will be executed as often as defined in the entry field. The blocks are applied sequentially from top to bottom. Once the last block has been executed, the program repeats with the first block again. Therefore, this block is also called »loop«.

Only integer values can be entered.

Settings and input:

  • Number that indicates how often the contained blocks will be repeated.
  • Blocks to be repeated as often as defined.


 


 

 

»repeat while/until« [Expert block]

With the block »repeat while/until« you can run other block as many times as you like. All blocks in the »repeat while/until« block will be executed as long as the condition in the entry field is true. The blocks are applied sequentially from top to bottom. Once the last block has been executed, the program repeats with the first block again if the condition is still true. Therefore, this block is also called »conditional loop«.

 

Settings and input:

  • »while« or »until«, defining the type of the conditional repetition.
  • Boolean value, »true« or »false«.
  • Blocks that will be repeated while/until the condition evaluates to »true«. 


 


 

 

»for each item in list« [Expert block]

With the block »for each item in list« all list items will successively be bound to a variable. The variable can be used within the loop. With each loop cycle the next item of the list will be bound until all list elements have been processed.

Settings and input value:

  • Type of list elements, »Number«, »String«, »Boolean«, »Colour«, »Connection«
  • Variable, name of free choice; list elements will be delivered one after the other to the variable.
  • List  that contains elements of the desired type. If the list elements are not of the correct type then the list will not fit to the input slot.
  • Blocks which will be executed as often as there are elements in the list.


 


 

 

»count with from to« [Expert block]

With the block »count with from to« you can run other block as many times as you like. All blocks in the »count with from to« block will be executed as long as the counting is in progress. The blocks are applied sequentially from top to bottom. Once the last block has been executed, the program repeats with the first block again if the counting is in progress. The last parameter declares the step width for counting.

Settings:

  • Variable, name of free choice; numbers of the counter will be delivered one after the other to the variable. 
  • Number, initial value of the counter.
  • Number, final value of the counter. As the counter exceeds this value the loop ends.
  • Number, defining the increment. The variable value will increase by this amount after every loop cycle.
  • Blocks that will be executed in every loop cycle.



 

 

»break out/continue with next iteration of loop« [Expert block]

With the block »break out/continue with next iteration of loop« a loop can be terminated ahead of schedule. As soon as the block is entered within a sequence of blocks, all further blocks up to the end of the loop will be ignored.

Settings:

  • Type of breaking behavior, »break out« or »continue with next iteration«.
 

 


 

 


 

 

»wait«

With the block »wait« you can "pause" your program at the point where you inserted the »wait« block. Your program will then remain for the specified duration at this point. After the specified time the next block will be executed. For example you can display text in the screen of your robot for exactly the time you specified in the »wait« block.

Settings:

  • Number, waiting time in milliseconds.



 

 

»wait until«

With the block »wait until« you can "stop" your program at the point you insert the »wait until« block. Your program then waits until the condition is true. The »wait until« block you can extended by click on "+" symbol. Your program then waits until (at least) one of the condition of your »wait until« block is true.

Settings:

  • Add a new condition.
  • Delete the last condition.
  • Boolean value, »true« or »false«.


 

 



 

Logic

With the »logic« blocks you can "create" conditions. With this condition you can interrelate states, values, and events with each other.

The following »logic« blocks are available at NEPO :

  • comparison
  • and/or
  • not (Expert block)
  • true/false
  • null (Expert block)
  • test (Expert block)


 

 

»comparison«

With the block »comparison« you can compare different parameters of the same type (number, color, logical value, text). This block can only be used in conjunction with another block which requires a logical value as an input parameter.

Settings and input values:

  • Value for the left hand side.
  • Comparison, select one of =, ≠, <, ≤, >, ≥
  • Value for the right hand side.

Return value:

  • Boolean value, »true« or »false«.

 


 

 

»and/or«

With the block »and/or« you can interrelate logical values with each other. The »and/or« block with the setting "and" will be true only if both logical parameters are "'true"'. If the block has the setting »or« it is sufficient if one of the two parameters is "true", so that the »and/or« block will return true.

Settings:

  • Boolean value on the left hand side.
  • Boolean function, »and« or »or«.
  • Boolean value on the right hand side.
Return value:
  • Boolean value »true« or»false«.
  •  

     



     

     

    »not« [Expert block]

    Using the »not« lets you invert a logical value and pass this value to another block.

    Input value:

    • Boolean value, to be inverted.
    Return value:
    • Boolean value, »true« or »false«; result of inverting.


     


     

     

    »true/false«

    With the block »true/false« you can return either the logical value »true« or »false« to another block.

    Settings:

    • Boolean value, make your choice.
    Return value:
    • Boolean value, »true« or »false«.



     

     

    »null« [Expert block]

    The block »null« is a place holder for an input value that is not yet specified. If for instance a new connection variable has been created and is not yet bound, the initial value of this connection will be set to »null«.

    Input value: none

    Return value::

    • Boolean value, »null«.

     


     

     

    »test« [Expert block]

    Using the »test« block will perform a test and returns a value which depends on the test result.

    Input values:

    • Boolean value for the test; if no input value is given "true" will be assumed.
    • Arbitrary value, evaluated by a block.
    • Arbitrary value, evaluated by a block.
    Return value:
    • Value of arbitrary type.




     

    Math

    Using »Math« blocks offers calculations and parameter settings.

    The following »Math« blocks are available at NEPO:

    • parameter
    • calculating
    • mathematical function (Expert block)
    • trigonometric function (Expert block)
    • constant (Expert block)
    • number property (Expert block)
    • change by x (Expert block)
    • round (Expert block)
    • list evaluation (Expert block)
    • remainder of (Expert block)
    • constrain (Expert block)
    • random integer (Expert block)
    • random fraction (Expert block)

     


     

     

    »parameter«

    With the block »parameter« you can send numbers to another block.

      Settings:

    • Number

    Return value:

    •  Number



     

     

    »calculating«

    With the block »calculating« you can sum up, subtract, multiply, and divide numbers. This block can only be used in conjunction with another block which requires a number as an input parameter.

    Settings and input values:

    •  Number
    •  Mathematical operator, choose one of +, −, ×, ÷, ^
    • Number
    Return value:
    •  Number, result of the calculation.


     


     

    Degree and radian measure

    In standard blocks of Open Roberta, especially along with the actions »turn… by x degree« and in the sensor block »get angle gyrosensor …« the angles will be represented in degree (0° ... 360°). The unit is called degree and will be represented by the Symbol °. 90° represents a right angle, 180° a half circle or a turn around, and 360° represents a full circle.

    The trigonometric functions in the expert mode, like sin, cos, tan, ... the input parameters will be expected to be given in radian measure. The unit is called RAD. A right angle is represented by π/2, the half circle or turn around is π, and the full cirle is 2π.

    To convert degree (°) into radian measure (RAD) or vice versa  you may use the following calculations:

    • degree to radian measure: (x degree / 180) * π
    • radian measure to degree: (x RAD * 180) / π

     


     

     

    »mathematical function« [Expert block]

    With the block »mathematical function« some elementary mathematical functions may be calculated. Available functions are »square root«, »absolute«, »invert« (multiply by -1), »ln« (natural logarithm), »log10« (decadic logarithm), »e^« (exponential function), »10^« (base 10 exponent)

    Settings and input value:

    • Mathematical function, choose one.
    • Number to apply the function to.
    Return value:
    •  Number, result of the function application.


     

     


     

     

    »trigonometric function« [Expert block]

    With the block »trigonometric function« sine, cosine, tangent and their respective revers functions can be calculated. Input values are expected in radian measure(see hint above).

    Settings and input value:

    • Trigonometric function, choose one.
    • Number, in radian measure.
    Return value:
    •  Number, result of the trigonometric calculation.


     

     


     

     

    »constant« [Expert block]

    With the »constant« block some mathematical constant values are available: »π« (3,1415...), »e« (2,718...), »φ« (1,618...), »sqrt(2)« (1,414...), »sqrt(½)« (0,7071...), »∞«

    Settings:

    • Mathematical constants, choose one.
     

    Return value:

    •  Number, value of the selected mathematical constant. Infinity will return »infinity«.


     


     

     

    »number property« [Expert block]

    With the block »number property« you check whether a given number has a specific property: »even«, »odd«, »prime«, »whole«, »positive«, »negative«, »divisible by«.

    Input value and settings:

    • Number, the property of this input value will be checked.
    • Number property, choose one.
    • Number, evaluated from a block. The second input value is only required for the property »divisible by«.
    Return value:
    • Boolean value, »true« or »false«, depending on the selected property.



     

     

    »change by x« [Expert block]

    The block »change by x« increments a numerical variable by a defined value.

    Settings:

    • Variable name, which value is to be changed. Choose the variable to be changed.
    • Number, given by a block.


     

     


     

     

    »round« [Expert block]

    With the block »round« values may be rounded. Rounding will set the decimal places to 0. It depends on the value of the decimal places whether the block rounds up or down. You may also decide by settings to always round up or down.

    Settings and input value:

    • Type of rounding, choose a round mode.
    • Number, given by a block.
    Return value:
    • Number, rounded whole number, according to the round mode.



     

     

    »list evaluation« [Expert block]

    With the block »list evaluation« you may analyze a list.

    Settings:

    • sum - addition of all list values
    • min - smallest value in the list
    • max - largest value in the list
    • average - average of all list values
    • median - median of all list values
    • standard deviation - standard deviation of all list values
    • random item - one list value randomly selected

    Settings and input value:

    • Mode of list evaluation, choose one mode.
    • List of numbers
    Return value:
    • Number, calculated according to the selected list evaluation mode.


     

     


     

     

    »remainder of« [Expert block]

    The block »remainder of« calculates a divison and returns the remainder of the division.

    Input values:

    • Number to be divided (dividend).
    • Number, divisor.
    Return value:
    • Number, rest of the division.


     


     

     

    »constrain« [Expert block]

    The block »constrain« ensures that given boundaries will not be exceeded.

    Input values:

    • Number, that will be constrained.
    • Number, lower bound.
    • Number, upper bound.
    Return value:
    • Number, constrained by the lower and the upper bound.



     

     

    »random integer« [Expert block]

    With the block »random integer« you may generate random integer numbers within defined limits

    Input values:

    • Number, lower bound
    • Number, upper bound
    Return value:
    • Number, a whole random number from within the upper and lower bounds.


     

     


     

     

    »random fraction« [Expert block]

    With the block »random fraction« a random value between 0.0 and 1.0 is calculated.

    Return value:

    • Number, positive random value between 0.0 and 1.0.


     

     



     

    Text

    »Text« blocks perform simple operations on text strings.

    Available »Text« blocks in NEPO are:

    • Text
    • create text (Expert block)
    • append text (Expert block)

     

     


     

     

    »Text«

    The simple »Text« block creates a little text.

    Input value:

    • String, containing arbitrary characters.
    Return value:
    • String, containing arbitrary characters.



     

     

    »create text« [Expert block]

    The »create text« block compiles a text from different input parameters. Using the + sign will insert further input slots. All input parameters will be connected one after the other. Essentially the »create text« block converts an arbitrary input value into a text string.

    Input values:

    • Arbitrary values (numbers, text, logical values, colours)
    Return value:
    • String, containing arbitrary characters, compiled sequentially from all input values.


     


     

     

    »append text« [Expert block]

    The »append text« block will append some string to a given string, for instance to extend a message with a signature.

    Input values:

    • String, to which some other text will be appended.
    • String, that shall be appended.




     

    Variables

    The »Variables« blocks are used to create global variables of six different parameter types. The global variables store values which may be used at arbitrary positions in a program.

    Each variable has to be created prior to its use. Create a variable by clicking the »+« sign in the »start« block. Each variable has to be assigned a name and a parameter type. Further clicks on the »+« sign will create additional variables.

    The name of a variable has to be unique in a program.

    Settings:

    • Insert another variable.
    • Delete this variable.
    • Variable name, special characters and space sign are not allowed.
    • Variable type, »number«, »boolean«, »string«, »colour«, »connection«, »list number«, »list boolean«, »list string« oder »list connection«
    • Initial values, according to the variable type.
    These »Variables« blocks are available in NEPO:

    • set variable
    • get variable

     

    The name of a variable has to start with a letter. Variables names must not contain special characters (%_"!...). While entering a variable's name NEPO indicates whether the name is acceptable by changing the background color of the variable's name input field.

    • white background = acceptable name
    • red background = invalid name


     

     

    »set variable«

    Using the block »set variable« will assign a value to a variable. Depending on the variable type the value may be assigned by an input connector.

    Settings and input value:

    • Variable, which value is to be changed.
    • Value, new value for the variable, evaluated from a suitable block.



     

     

    »get variable«

    Using the block »get variable« returns the value of a variable to another block.The type of the output parameter is equal to the type that has been assigned to the variable in the »start« block.

    Settings:

    • Variable, that will be read. The value will not be changed by reading.
    Return value:
    • Value, stored in the variable.




     

    Lists [Expert blocks]

    A liste is a sequence of data (of identical parameter types) with elements in a fixed succession. Create a »list« type variable to make use of a »Lists« block. NEPO provides five different parameter types for lists: number, string, boolean, color and connection.

    NEPO provides the following »Lists« blocks:

    • create list
    • repeat element in list
    • length of
    • is empty?
    • find in list
    • get list element
    • set list element
    • get sublist

     


     

     

    »create list« [Expert block]

    The block »empty list« creates a list with no content.The block »list« generates a list with some predefined values.

    This block may only be used in the context of a »set variable« block.

    Using + or − enables you to extend or reduce the list at its end.

    Settings and input values:

    • List type, »Number«, »String«, »Boolean«, »Colour«, »Connection«.
    • Create further list element, append to the end of the list.
    • Delete list element at the end of the list.
    • Values, according to the list type. Here the input of initial values is possible.
    Return value:
    • Empty list or list, containing elements of the specified list type.



     

     

    »repeat element in list« [Expert block]

    The »repeat element in list« block generates a list of equal elements.  

    Settings:

    • List type, »Number«, »Boolean«, »String«, »Colour« or »Connection«.
    • List element, according to the selected list type. This value will be repeated in the list.
    •  Number, defining how often the list element will be repeated.
    Return value:
    • List of the specified list type, containing the specified number of equal elements.



     

     

    »length of« [Expert block]

    The »length of« block returns a value which is the lenght of the list given as parameter. An empty list has a length of 0.

    Input value:

    • List, evaluated by an appropriate block.
    Return value:
    • Integer, number of list elements.



     

     

    »is empty?« [Expert block]

    A list given as parameter will be checked whether it is empty.

    Input value:

    • List, evaluated by an appropriate block.
    Return value:
    • Boolean, either »true« or »false«.



     

     

    »find in list« [Expert block]

    A list is searched for an item. If the item is in the list, the list position will be returned. If the item is not in the list the result is -1.

    Settings and input values:

    • List, that will be examined.
    • Position of the occurrence, either »first« or »last«.
    • Value, list item to be found.
    Return value:
    • Number, indicating the position where the element was found in the list.
      Note: Counting list positions will start with 0.



     

     

    »get list element« [Expert block]

    This block accesses an item of a list. Depending on the settings this item may be altered.

    A list is given as parameter. Then a drop-down-list specifies what will happen to the list item under consideration.

    Settings:

    • List, that is under consideration.
    • Action for the element found: »get« reads the element and leaves it unchanged, »get and remove« reads the element and removes it from the list, »remove« just removes the element from the list.
    • Position of the element found: »#«, »# from end«, »first«, »last« or »random« .
    • Number, indicating the list position. This input value is not required if »first«, »last« or »random« was selected as position.
      Note: Counting of list positions starts with 0.
    Return value:
    • List element that has been found at the specified list position; »undefined«, if the list position does not exist.
      With selection of »remove« there is no return value; instead the list will be shortened by this list element.


    Select an action:

    Select an item position:


     

     

    »set list element« [Expert block]

    In a list given as input parameter one specified element will be replaced by a new value.

    Settings and input values:

    • List, that will be changed.
    • Action for the element found; »set« changes the element, »insert at« inserts a new element into the list.
    • Position for the element to be changed: »#«, »# from end«, »first«, »last« or »random« .
    • Number, indicating the list position. This input value is not required if »first«, »last« or »random« was selected.
      Note: Counting of list positions begins with 0.
    • List element, that will be set or inserted at the selected list position.



     

     

    »get sublist« [Expert block]

    From a list given as parameter a sublist will be created. The sublist contains all those elements that match the further specifications of the block.

    Settings and input values:

    • List to be examined.
    • Position, start of the sublist: »#«, »# from end« or »first«.
    • Number, indicating the list position. This input value is not required if »first« has been selected.
      Note: Counting of list positions starts with 0.
    • Position, end of the sublist: »#«, »# from end« or »last«.
    • Number, indicating the list position. This input value is not required if »last« has been selected.
      Note: Counting of list positions starts with 0.
    Return value:
    • List, a sublist of the same type as the given list.


    List position to start the sublist

    List position for the end of the sublist



     

    Functions [Expert blocks]

    With »Functions« blocks (in Java also called »methods« or »subprograms«) you may create more readable programs. NEPO offers some function blocks:

    • Function blocks with/without input parameters and no return parameter
    • Function blocks with/without input parameters and one return parameter
    • If block to be used within a function

    With elementary function blocks you may program simple and komplex functions which may be used by function calls. Each programmed function is available immediately as an additional block in the »Functions« category. Those are

    • Function calls with/without input parameters and without return parameter
    • Function calls with/without input parameters and also one return parameter

    Depending from the number of input and return parameters the selection of function blocks varies.

    A unique name is assigned by NEPO to each new function definition (doSomething, doSomething2, ...). This name may be altered. Overwriting of a defined function is not possible.

     

    Strictly speaking each of your programs starts with a function, the so called main function. In NEPO we called this »start« .


     


     

     

    Function block with/without input parameter and without return parameter [Expert block]

    In a function block with/without input parameter and without return parameter a sequence of program statements will be condensed. The input parameters will be determined by the local variables of the function block. Local variables may be generated by using the »+« sign of the function block. Local variables will not be initialized.

    If a function block contains an if-block the function may be terminated before reaching it's end.

    The function block is available in the »Functions« category immediately after its definition. Using function blocks improves the readability of complex programs.

    Settings:

    • Function name, no special characters and white spaces allowed
    • Generate new local variables, that will be assigned with the function call.
    • Delete the associated local variable.

    • The name of a function block has to start with a lower case letter. Special characters are not allowed in a function block name.
    • If the function block defines input parameters (local variables), all the parameter slots have to be occupied when calling the function.

    Example function with two local variables and no return parameter:

    Using the function in a program:


     

     

    Function block with/without input parameter and with return parameter [Expert block]

    In a function block with/without input parameter and with return parameter a sequence of program statements will be condensed. The input parameters will be determined by the local variables of the function block. Local variables may be generated by using the »+« sign of the function block. Local variables will not be initialized. After running through all the blocks of the function a value will be returned.

    If a function block contains an if-block the function may be terminated before reaching it's end. An alternative value may be returned by the if-block.

    The function block is available in the »Functions« category immediately after its definition. Using function blocks improves the readability of complex programs.

    Settings:

    • Function name, no special characters and white spaces allowed
    • Generate new local variables, that will be assigned with the function call.
    • Delete the associated local variable.
    • Data type for the return value; choose one data type.
    • Block, that returns a value of the defined data type.
    Return value:
    • Value of the defined data type, evaluated in an appropriate block.

    • The name of a function block has to start with a lower case letter. Special characters are not allowed in a function block name.
    • If the function block defines input parameters (local variables), all the parameter slots have to be occupied when calling the function.

    Example definition of a function to calculate the hypothenuse of a right triangle with two input parameters and one return parameter:

    Using the funktion in a program:

     

     


     

     

    If statement within a function [Expert block]

    The if statement within a function is of special importance. As the function sequence meets an if statement the validity of the condition will be checked.

    If statement within a function with return value:

    • If the condition evaluates to »true« the rest of the function will be ignored and the function terminates. The second input value of the if statement will be returned. A possibly defined return value of the function will be ignored. The return value data type is determined by the return data type of the function definition.
    • If the condition evaluates to »false« the sequence of the function blocks will be continued. The return value of the function will be returned after reaching the end of the function.

    If statement within a function with no return value:

    • An if statement within a function without return value has just the if statement as input parameter.
    • If the condition evaluates to »true« the rest of the function will be ignored and the function terminates.
    • If the condition evaluates to »false« the sequence of the function blocks will be continued.

    Settings and input values:

    • Boolean value, possibly evaluated by a condition.
    • Value of the specified data type.
    Return value:
    • Value of the specified data type.


     

    Example: If x > 5 the function terminates and returns "Winner" and there will be no movement of the robot. Otherwise the robot drives some distance and the function returns "Loser".

     

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